We will review the initial steps of project implementation below.
Initial workshop actions:
Let’s assume that you are assigned a monitoring or implementation task today. What things should you check before setting up the contract?
A- Before setting up the contract:
Negotiating with the employer and reviewing the implementation changes and possible violations that the owner/owners are considering should be done.
B- After setting up the contract until the start of executive operations:
We will explore this in future articles.
How many times does he build a building?
Unfortunately, some people do not have enough qualifications to build. And they start building for the first time. These people usually take the most energy and cost from the supervising engineer and executive and other officials. And they try to solve their problems by using marginal issues.
Such people have the highest level of errors and mistakes, and due to lack of experience, they will encounter many problems during work.
But if the owner has already built at least 7-8 buildings and has experience in the construction of big cities, it will be much easier to work with him.
(If we cooperate with an inexperienced owner, at least we can inform them of the regulations and they will monitor with more energy and follow-up.)
Is he in a hurry to build or will he build with a high delay?
Due to the fact that the performance fee has little to do with its duration and due to the competitive market that reduces the performance fee. Also, considering the limited implementation capacity, choosing faster projects will be more acceptable.
With a rough and general calculation, a project implementation currently has a low annual income. If the project takes 2 years or more, the monthly salary will be a small amount.
(It should be noted that the supervision is defined periodically, but the implementation will be resident at the moment, and if the executive engineer is not present in the project, his absence will be recorded in the engineering system supervision system.)
The lowest floor of the previous existing building and the future plan
A- (ground floor/underground)
The problem arises when the old building has a basement and the new building must be built from the ground floor. In this case, usually during demolition, the underground is filled with construction debris.
And if the building starts from the ground floor, the foundation of some of the columns will be placed on the scum under the previous floor, and those columns and roofs of the building will be exposed to permanent settlement.
One of the solutions to this problem is to put piles under the column to reach resistant soil. For this, first, wells are executed at certain intervals according to the plan.
And then, the rebar network with the vertical winding along with the concrete transfers the forces on the foundation of the structure to the resistant subsoil.
When the old building has a basement, the implementation of the building from the ground floor will cause many problems. In this case, the following methods should be used to solve this problem:
Lowering the foundation code until reaching the appropriate soil
Filling under the foundation with lime mortar
Adding a basement with suitable use
Putting a candle under the foundation
Ground floor in the initial steps of project implementation:
In this case, the code on the foundation is selected from one of the following situations:
At least 30 cm to pass the sewage pipe with a slope of 1.5%
Between 35 and 55 cm of blockage on the foundation
Between 50 and 80 cm is needed to maintain the frost depth.
Examining the neighborhoods from the point of view of: usage, building age, foundation level, type of bearing system, number of residents, number of floors, the possibility or impossibility of quick evacuation in the event of an accident, the distance of the nearest medical centers and fire department from the place and their inherent static control In each of the following cases, problems for construction and excavation are investigated:
A- New ground floor building and adjacent new or old building / ground floor or underground which is the best condition.
B- The new building has one or two basements and the adjacent newly built or old building with the same number of basements, in this case as the foundation level of the adjacent buildings is the same as the new building, the level of risk is lower.
C – The new building has several undergrounds below the depth of surface water or adjacent to the aqueduct, in which case, the sudden collapse and subsidence of the soil should be checked simultaneously with the excavation of water drainage.
D- The new building has one or two basements and the building adjacent to the new building should be at the level of the first floor. In this case, the risk of excavation increases, and the guard structure must be used.
e- The new building has one or two basements and the plot adjacent to the old building at ground level. This will be one of the worst cases because the foundations of old buildings are usually weaker and mostly single foundations. In this case, in addition to the guard structure, the foundation of the old building should also be built.
f- The new building has three basements and an adjacent lot or neighboring yard and passage. In this case, nailing or other methods such as piling should be used to strengthen the pit wall.
5- The type of skeleton (metal/concrete) in the initial steps of project implementation
The amount of the cost and how to allocate it (in the metal frame, 50% of the cost should be allocated in the first one or two months.
Is it correct to choose the type of skeleton according to the economic conditions of the owner? And the municipality of the region has forced the owner to build a metal frame due to the quality of the construction? Is the owner aware of the issues and problems of metal and concrete frames?
A metal frame without fire protection is not resistant to fire, and a concrete frame makes space difficult due to the large volume of beams and columns, but it is cheaper. In addition, the dry-welded connection may break and destroy the building in case of improper implementation, etc. in an earthquake.
Possible changes in case n
According to the employer, it may be against the regulations. (It is possible to cover the patio/increase the height/underground lighting/allocate the elevator to the roof, etc.) The result of this negotiation can be the cancellation of the project or obtaining the address of the property and visiting it.
It should be noted that if some violations or changes are reported in time and the arrangements are taken into consideration, it will not cause any problems for the supervising engineer and will increase the architectural and spatial qualities.
(such as a small increase in the height of the floors in concrete structures, which makes the environment open, and on the other hand, it is necessary to design the structure based on the higher height of the columns and increase the length of the staircase by at least 30 centimeters
(If the length is increased from 4.80 to 5.10, the floor to floor height can be increased from 324 to 360 cm.) (Of course, the sky line should also be considered according to the view committee).
But some mistakes and even mistakes cannot be forgiven. For example, if the completed distance (thinning) between two columns in the parking lot is changed from 450 to 445 cm or from 650 to 645 cm, a parking lot will be removed.
It is also interesting to mention that the sensitivity of the municipality regarding the length of the parking lot is usually not as much as the width of the parking lot, and it is practically ignored to some extent in different regions and cities.
Examining the plan and its feasibility in the initial steps of project implementation
Checking the land of the property (four corners) and its depth according to the code under the foundation
Checking the depth of adjacent properties and the depth of excavation of the building
Checking the space required for the material depot and free passage space:
In wide roads with little traffic, it is usually possible to obtain a permit for the material depot from the municipality. But if the road is narrow and busy and the land is small, the builder will face many problems in the work and the small land will be more dangerous and crowded despite the expectation.
Examining the financial and economic ability of the employer and the desired time for the end of the project, as well as an overview of the project in the initial steps of project implementation:
With a sharp look of engineering in the first visit, the above items may be checked and as a result cooperation with the client can be decided. Certainly, if the employer sees the alertness of the engineer, if he intends to cooperate, he will more easily entrust the project to him. All maps will have minimal changes during execution. Because in order to perform the facade, we have to pull in 7.5 cm of the Ax column in the bodies of Hayat Passage.
(In a normal building with two facades on the north and south sides, the length of the building and the axles will be reduced by about 14 cm. This change may cause the removal of the parking lot or the staircase and elevator will be smaller, which will not be compatible with the regulations.) The step should be checked, will the useful space between the columns be sufficient in terms of the rules for placing the parking lot, staircase and elevator in place, and the dimensions given in the map will not be smaller? Will the beams lead to the displacement of the staircase and elevator and the shrinking of the duct? And the land of the project is the same as the dimensions of the building, and the building will not be smaller/bigger in practice? Is it necessary to fill a part of the existing underground (with manual soil and waste) and the building to withstand years of settlement?
Can excavation lead to the collapse of the old walls of the neighbor? And the building is not located in a narrow alley, and is it possible to place a truck and a truck mixer and concrete it, or is it necessary to prepare a manual concrete mixer? Is it possible to have a crane to install the metal frame? Is there enough space in the alley to store the materials, especially the metal frame, or will we have to make the frame in two pieces?
Usually, the implementation problems of narrow alleys and small buildings are much more than big projects. If you answer these questions, you can choose your employer with an open mind and deal with problems.
Review of general geotechnical information including identification of the soil of the construction site, slope and topography of the land, underground water level (presence of an aqueduct or water spring in the vicinity), distance of the construction site from the known fault, depth of manual soil, identification of sewage wells, general examination of the history of the topography of the site Construction of the project based on location information.
A general assessment of the inherent risks of the project, such as the risk of being in a flood-prone area, the proximity of the project to special and important places (such as buildings with high flammability, the existence of old water storage tanks and pools, public and important buildings, places with drift potential and fluidity)